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Radiative contribution to classical gravitational scattering at the third order in $G$

Damour Thibault
04 Oct 2020 gr-qc arxiv.org/abs/2010.01641

Working within the post-Minkowskian approach to General Relativity, we prove that the radiation-reaction to the emission of gravitational waves during the large-impact-parameter scattering of two (classical) point masses modifies the conservative scattering angle by an additional contribution of order $G^3$ which involves a high-energy (or massless) logarithmic divergence of opposite sign to the one contained in the third-post-Minkowskian result of Bern et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 122}, 201603 (2019)]. The high-energy limit of the resulting radiation-reaction-corrected (classical) scattering angle is finite, and is found to agree with the one following from the (quantum) eikonal-phase result of Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano [ Nucl. Phys. B {\bf 347}, 550 (1990)].

Gravitational dynamics at $O(G^6)$: perturbative gravitational scattering meets experimental mathematics

Bini Donato, Damour Thibault, Geralico Andrea, Laporta Stefano, Mastrolia Pierpaolo
21 Aug 2020 gr-qc hep-th arxiv.org/abs/2008.09389

A recently introduced approach to the gravitational dynamics of binary systems involves intricate integrals, linked to nonlocal-in-time interactions arising at the 5-loop level of classical gravitational scattering. We complete the analytical evaluation of classical gravitational scattering at the sixth order in Newton's constant, $G$, and at the sixth post-Newtonian accuracy. We use computing techniques developed for the evaluation of multi-loop Feynman integrals to obtain our results in two ways: high-precision arithmetic, yielding reconstructed analytic expressions, and direct integration {\it via} Harmonic Polylogarithms. The analytic expression of the tail contribution to the scattering involve transcendental constants up to weight four.

Sixth post-Newtonian nonlocal-in-time dynamics of binary systems

Bini Donato, Damour Thibault, Geralico Andrea
22 Jul 2020 gr-qc hep-th arxiv.org/abs/2007.11239

We complete our previous derivation, at the sixth post-Newtonian (6PN) accuracy, of the local-in-time dynamics of a gravitationally interacting two-body system by giving two gauge-invariant characterizations of its complementary nonlocal-in-time dynamics. On the one hand, we compute the nonlocal part of the scattering angle for hyberboliclike motions; and, on the other hand, we compute the nonlocal part of the averaged (Delaunay) Hamiltonian for ellipticlike motions. The former is computed as a large-angular-momentum expansion (given here to next-to-next-to-leading order), while the latter is given as a small-eccentricity expansion (given here to the tenth order). We note the appearance of $\zeta(3)$ in the nonlocal part of the scattering angle. The averaged Hamiltonian for ellipticlike motions then yields two more gauge-invariant observables: the energy and the periastron precession as functions of orbital frequencies. We point out the existence of a hidden simplicity in the mass-ratio dependence of the gravitational-wave energy loss of a two-body system.

Black holes in torsion bigravity

Nikiforova Vasilisa, Damour Thibault
16 Jul 2020 gr-qc arxiv.org/abs/2007.08606

We study spherically symmetric black hole solutions in a four-parameter Einstein-Cartan-type class of theories, called "torsion bigravity". These theories offer a geometric framework (with a metric and an independent torsionfull connection) for a modification of Einstein's theory that has the same spectrum as bimetric gravity models. In addition to an Einsteinlike massless spin-2 excitation, there is a massive spin-2 one (of range $\kappa^{-1}$) coming from the torsion sector, rather than from a second metric. We prove the existence of three broad classes of spherically-symmetric black hole solutions in torsion bigravity. First, the Schwarzschild solution defines an asymptotically-flat torsionless black hole for all values of the parameters. [And we prove that one cannot deform a Schwarzschild solution, at the linearized level, by adding an infinitesimal torsion hair.] Second, when considering finite values of the range, we find that there exist non-asymptotically-flat torsion-hairy black holes in a large domain of parameter space. Third, we find that, in the limit of infinite range, there exists a two-parameter family of asymptotically flat torsion-hairy black holes. The latter black hole solutions give an interesting example of non-Einsteinian (but still purely geometric) black hole structures which might be astrophysically relevant when considering a range of cosmological size.

Sixth post-Newtonian local-in-time dynamics of binary systems

Bini Donato, Damour Thibault, Geralico Andrea
11 Apr 2020 gr-qc arxiv.org/abs/2004.05407

Using a recently introduced method [Phys.\ Rev.\ Lett.\ {\bf 123}, 231104 (2019)], which splits the conservative dynamics of gravitationally interacting binary systems into a non-local-in-time part and a local-in-time one, we compute the local part of the dynamics at the sixth post-Newtonian (6PN) accuracy. Our strategy combines several theoretical formalisms: post-Newtonian, post-Minkowskian, multipolar-post-Minkowskian, effective-field-theory, gravitational self-force, effective one-body, and Delaunay averaging. The full functional structure of the local 6PN Hamiltonian (which involves 151 numerical coefficients) is derived, but contains four undetermined numerical coefficients. Our 6PN-accurate results are complete at orders $G^3$ and $G^4$, and the derived $O(G^3)$ scattering angle agrees, within our 6PN accuracy, with the computation of [Phys.\ Rev.\ Lett.\ {\bf 122}, no. 20, 201603 (2019)]. All our results are expressed in several different gauge-invariant ways. We highlight, and make a crucial use of, several aspects of the hidden simplicity of the mass-ratio dependence of the two-body dynamics.

Binary dynamics at the fifth and fifth-and-a-half post-Newtonian orders

Bini Donato, Damour Thibault, Geralico Andrea
26 Mar 2020 gr-qc hep-th arxiv.org/abs/2003.11891

Using the new methodology introduced in a recent Letter [Phys.\ Rev.\ Lett.\ {\bf 123}, 231104 (2019)], we present the details of the computation of the conservative dynamics of gravitationally interacting binary systems at the fifth post-Newtonian (5PN) level, together with its extension at the fifth-and-a-half post-Newtonian (5.5PN) level. We present also the sixth post-Newtonian (6PN) contribution to the third-post-Minkowskian (3PM) dynamics. Our strategy combines several theoretical formalisms: post-Newtonian, post-Minkowskian, multipolar-post-Minkowskian, gravitational self-force, effective one-body, and Delaunay averaging. We determine the full functional structure of the 5PN Hamiltonian (which involves 95 non-zero numerical coefficients), except for two undetermined coefficients proportional to the cube of the symmetric mass ratio, and to the fifth and sixth power of the gravitational constant, $G$. We present not only the 5PN-accurate, 3PM contribution to the scattering angle, but also its 6PN-accurate generalization. Both results agree with the corresponding truncations of the recent 3PM result of Bern et al. [Phys.\ Rev.\ Lett.\ {\bf 122}, 201603 (2019)]. We also compute the 5PN-accurate, fourth-post-Minkowskian (4PM) contribution to the scattering angle, including its nonlocal contribution, thereby offering checks for future 4PM calculations. We point out a remarkable hidden simplicity of the gauge-invariant functional relation between the radial action and the effective-one-body energy and angular momentum.

Scattering of tidally interacting bodies in post-Minkowskian gravity

Bini Donato, Damour Thibault, Geralico Andrea
02 Jan 2020 gr-qc hep-th arxiv.org/abs/2001.00352

The post-Minkowskian approach to gravitationally interacting binary systems ({\it i.e.}, perturbation theory in $G$, without assuming small velocities) is extended to the computation of the dynamical effects induced by the tidal deformations of two extended bodies, such as neutron stars. Our derivation applies general properties of perturbed actions to the effective field theory description of tidally interacting bodies. We compute several tidal invariants (notably the integrated quadrupolar and octupolar actions) at the first post-Minkowskian order. The corresponding contributions to the scattering angle are derived.

Classical and quantum scattering in post-Minkowskian gravity

Damour Thibault
04 Dec 2019 gr-qc arxiv.org/abs/1912.02139

New structural properties of post-Minkowskian (PM) gravity are derived, notably within its effective one body (EOB) formulation. Our results concern both the mass dependence, and the high-energy behavior, of the classical scattering angle. We generalize our previous work by deriving, up to the fourth post-Minkowskian (4PM) level included, the explicit links between the scattering angle and the two types of potentials entering the Hamiltonian description of PM dynamics within EOB theory. We compute the scattering amplitude derived from quantizing the third post-Minkowskian (3PM) EOB radial potential (including the contributions coming from the Born iterations), and point out various subtleties in the relation between perturbative amplitudes and classical dynamics. We highlight an apparent tension between the classical 3PM dynamics derived by Bern et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 201603 (2019)], and previous high-energy self-force results [Phys. Rev. D 86, 104041 (2012)], and propose several possible resolutions of this tension. We point out that linear-in-mass-ratio self-force computations can give access to the exact 3PM and 4PM dynamics.

Comparing Effective One Body Hamiltonians for spin-aligned coalescing binaries

Rettegno Piero, Martinetti Fabio, Nagar Alessandro, Bini Donato, Riemenschneider Gunnar, Damour Thibault
25 Nov 2019 gr-qc arxiv.org/abs/1911.10818

TEOBResumS and SEOBNRv4 are the two existing semi-analytical gravitational waveform models for spin-aligned coalescing black hole binaries based on the effective-one-body approach.They are informed by numerical relativity simulations and provide the relative dynamics and waveforms from early inspiral to plunge, merger and ringdown The central building block of each model is the EOB resummed Hamiltonian.The two models implement different Hamiltonians that are both deformations of the Hamiltonian of a test spinning black hole moving around a Kerr black hole.Here we analytically compare, element by element, the two Hamiltonians. In particular: we illustrate that one can introduce a centrifugal radius SEOBNRv4, so to rewrite the Hamiltonian in a more compact form that is analogous to the one of TEOBResumS.The latter centrifugal radius cannot, however, be identified with the one used in TEOBResumS because the two models differ in their ways of incorporating spin effects in their respective deformations of the background Kerr Hamiltonian. We performed extensive comparisons between the energetics corresponding to the two Hamiltonians using gauge-invariant quantities. Finally, as an exploratory investigation, we apply the post-adiabatic approximation to the newly rewritten SEOBNRv4 Hamiltonian, illustrating that it is possible to generate long-inspiral waveforms with negligible computational cost.

Space test of the Equivalence Principle: first results of the MICROSCOPE mission

Touboul Pierre, , Rodrigues Manuel, , Baghi Quentin, , Boulanger Damien, Bremer Stefanie, Chhun Ratana, Christophe Bruno
23 Sep 2019 gr-qc astro-ph.IM physics.space-ph arxiv.org/abs/1909.10598

The Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP), stating that two bodies of different compositions and/or mass fall at the same rate in a gravitational field (universality of free fall), is at the very foundation of General Relativity. The MICROSCOPE mission aims to test its validity to a precision of $10^{-15}$, two orders of magnitude better than current on-ground tests, by using two masses of different compositions (titanium and platinum alloys) on a quasi-circular trajectory around the Earth. This is realised by measuring the accelerations inferred from the forces required to maintain the two masses exactly in the same orbit. Any significant difference between the measured accelerations, occurring at a defined frequency, would correspond to the detection of a violation of the WEP, or to the discovery of a tiny new type of force added to gravity. MICROSCOPE's first results show no hint for such a difference, expressed in terms of E\"otv\"os parameter $\delta(Ti,Pt)=[-1\pm{}9{\rm (stat)}\pm{}9{\rm (syst)}] \times{}10^{-15}$ (both 1$\sigma$ uncertainties) for a titanium and platinum pair of materials. This result was obtained on a session with 120 orbital revolutions representing 7\% of the current available data acquired during the whole mission. The quadratic combination of 1$\sigma$ uncertainties leads to a current limit on $\delta$ of about $1.3\times{}10^{-14}$.