Interaction of a solitary wave with a long background wave is studied within the framework of rotation modified Benjamin-Ono equation describing internal waves in a deep fluid. With the help of asymptotic method, we find stationary and nonstationary solutions for a Benjamin-Ono soliton trapped within a long sinusoidal wave. We show that the radiation losses experienced by a soliton and caused by the Earth rotation can be compensated by the energy pumping from the background wave. However, the back influence of the soliton on the background wave eventually leads to the destruction of the coherent structure and energy dispersion in a quasi-random wave field.
In this paper we are consider radiating solitary wave solutions of coupled regularised Boussinesq equations. This type of solution consists of a leading solitary wave with a small-amplitude co-propagating oscillatory tail, and emerges from a pure solitary wave solution of a symmetric reduction of the full system. We construct an asymptotic solution, where the leading order approximation in both components is obtained as a particular solution of the regularised Boussinesq equations in the symmetric case. At the next order, the system uncouples into two linear non-homogeneous ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients, one correcting the localised part of the solution, which we find analytically, and the other describing the co-propagating oscillatory tail. This latter equation is a fourth-order ordinary differential equation and is solved approximately by two different methods, each exploiting the assumption that the leading solitary wave has a small amplitude, and thus enabling an explicit estimate for the amplitude of the oscillating tail. These estimates are compared with corresponding numerical simulations.
In the context of fluid flows, the coupled Ostrovsky equations arise when two distinct linear long wave modes have nearly coincident phase speeds in the presence of background rotation. In this paper, nonlinear waves in a stratified fluid in the presence of shear flow are investigated both analytically, using techniques from asymptotic perturbation theory, and through numerical simulations. The dispersion relation of the system, based on a three-layer model of a stratified shear flow, reveals various dynamical behaviours, including the existence of unsteady and steady envelope wave packets.
Transcritical flow of a stratified fluid past a broad localised topographic obstacle is studied analytically in the framework of the forced extended Korteweg--de Vries (eKdV), or Gardner, equation. We consider both possible signs for the cubic nonlinear term in the Gardner equation corresponding to different fluid density stratification profiles. We identify the range of the input parameters: the oncoming flow speed (the Froude number) and the topographic amplitude, for which the obstacle supports a stationary localised hydraulic transition from the subcritical flow upstream to the supercritical flow downstream. Such a localised transcritical flow is resolved back into the equilibrium flow state away from the obstacle with the aid of unsteady coherent nonlinear wave structures propagating upstream and downstream. Along with the regular, cnoidal undular bores occurring in the analogous problem for the single-layer flow modeled by the forced KdV equation, the transcritical internal wave flows support a diverse family of upstream and downstream wave structures, including solibores, rarefaction waves, reversed and trigonometric undular bores, which we describe using the recent development of the nonlinear modulation theory for the (unforced) Gardner equation. The predictions of the developed analytic construction are confirmed by direct numerical simulations of the forced Gardner equation for a broad range of input parameters.
We develop modulation theory for undular bores (dispersive shock waves) in the framework of the Gardner, or extended Korteweg--de Vries, equation, which is a generic mathematical model for weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive wave propagation, when effects of higher order nonlinearity become important. Using a reduced version of the finite-gap integration method we derive the Gardner-Whitham modulation system in a Riemann invariant form and show that it can be mapped onto the well-known modulation system for the Korteweg--de Vries equation. The transformation between the two counterpart modulation systems is, however, not invertible. As a result, the study of the resolution of an initial discontinuity for the Gardner equation reveals a rich phenomenology of solutions which, along with the KdV type simple undular bores, include nonlinear trigonometric bores, solibores, rarefaction waves and composite solutions representing various combinations of the above structures. We construct full parametric maps of such solutions for both signs of the cubic nonlinear term in the Gardner equation. Our classification is supported by numerical simulations.
We derive an asymptotic formula for the amplitude distribution in a fully nonlinear shallow-water solitary wave train which is formed as the long-time outcome of the initial-value problem for the Su-Gardner (or one-dimensional Green-Naghdi) system. Our analysis is based on the properties of the characteristics of the associated Whitham modulation system which describes an intermediate "undular bore" stage of the evolution. The resulting formula represents a "non-integrable" analogue of the well-known semi-classical distribution for the Korteweg-de Vries equation, which is usually obtained through the inverse scattering transform. Our analytical results are shown to agree with the results of direct numerical simulations of the Su-Gardner system. Our analysis can be generalised to other weakly dispersive, fully nonlinear systems which are not necessarily completely integrable.
This paper considers the propagation of shallow-water solitary and nonlinear periodic waves over a gradual slope with bottom friction in the framework of a variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation. We use the Whitham averaging method, using a recent development of this theory for perturbed integrable equations. This general approach enables us not only to improve known results on the adiabatic evolution of isolated solitary waves and periodic wave trains in the presence of variable topography and bottom friction, modeled by the Chezy law, but also importantly, to study the effects of these factors on the propagation of undular bores, which are essentially unsteady in the system under consideration. In particular, it is shown that the combined action of variable topography and bottom friction generally imposes certain global restrictions on the undular bore propagation so that the evolution of the leading solitary wave can be substantially different from that of an isolated solitary wave with the same initial amplitude. This non-local effect is due to nonlinear wave interactions within the undular bore and can lead to an additional solitary wave amplitude growth, which cannot be predicted in the framework of the traditional adiabatic approach to the propagation of solitary waves in slowly varying media.
We consider unsteady undular bores for a pair of coupled equations of Boussinesq-type which contain the familiar fully nonlinear dissipationless shallow-water dynamics and the leading-order fully nonlinear dispersive terms. This system contains one horizontal space dimension and time and can be systematically derived from the full Euler equations for irrotational flows with a free surface using a standard long-wave asymptotic expansion. In this context the system was first derived by Su and Gardner. It coincides with the one-dimensional flat-bottom reduction of the Green-Naghdi system and, additionally, has recently found a number of fluid dynamics applications other than the present context of shallow-water gravity waves. We then use the Whitham modulation theory for a one-phase periodic travelling wave to obtain an asymptotic analytical description of an undular bore in the Su-Gardner system for a full range of "depth" ratios across the bore. The positions of the leading and trailing edges of the undular bore and the amplitude of the leading solitary wave of the bore are found as functions of this "depth ratio". The formation of a partial undular bore with a rapidly-varying finite-amplitude trailing wave front is predicted for ``depth ratios'' across the bore exceeding 1.43. The analytical results from the modulation theory are shown to be in excellent agreement with full numerical solutions for the development of an undular bore in the Su-Gardner system.
The dynamics of two pairs of counter-propagating waves in two-component media is considered within the framework of two generally nonintegrable coupled Sine-Gordon equations. We consider the dynamics of weakly nonlinear wave packets, and using an asymptotic multiple-scales expansion we obtain a suite of evolution equations to describe energy exchange between the two components of the system. Depending on the wave packet length-scale vis-a-vis the wave amplitude scale, these evolution equations are either four non-dispersive and nonlinearly coupled envelope equations, or four non-locally coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. We also consider a set of fully coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations, even though this system contains small dispersive terms which are strictly beyond the leading order of the asymptotic multiple-scales expansion method. Using both the theoretical predictions following from these asymptotic models and numerical simulations of the original unapproximated equations, we investigate the stability of plane-wave solutions, and show that they may be modulationally unstable. These instabilities can then lead to the formation of localized structures, and to a modification of the energy exchange between the components. When the system is close to being integrable, the time-evolution is distinguished by a remarkable almost periodic sequence of energy exchange scenarios, with spatial patterns alternating between approximately uniform wavetrains and localized structures.
The generation of an undular bore in the vicinity of a wave-breaking point is considered for the integrable Kaup-Boussinesq shallow water system. In the framework of the Whitham modulation theory, an analytic solution of the Gurevich-Pitaevskii type of problem for a generic "cubic" breaking regime is obtained using a generalized hodograph transform, and a further reduction to a linear Euler-Poisson equation. The motion of the undular bore edges is investigated in detail.