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Lawrence C. R. | Lawrence A. | Lawrence J. S. | Lawrence Albion | Lawrence Neil D. | Lawrence Jon S. | Lawrence Jon | Lawrence Andy | Lawrence J. M. | Lawrence Scott

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Prospects for Beyond the Standard Model Physics Searches at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

DUNE Collaboration , Abi B., Acciarri R., Acero M. A., Adamov G., Adams D., Adinolfi M., Ahmad Z., Ahmed J., Alion T.
28 Aug 2020 hep-ex hep-ph arxiv.org/abs/2008.12769

The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a powerful tool for a variety of physics topics. The high-intensity proton beams provide a large neutrino flux, sampled by a near detector system consisting of a combination of capable precision detectors, and by the massive far detector system located deep underground. This configuration sets up DUNE as a machine for discovery, as it enables opportunities not only to perform precision neutrino measurements that may uncover deviations from the present three-flavor mixing paradigm, but also to discover new particles and unveil new interactions and symmetries beyond those predicted in the Standard Model (SM). Of the many potential beyond the Standard Model (BSM) topics DUNE will probe, this paper presents a selection of studies quantifying DUNE's sensitivities to sterile neutrino mixing, heavy neutral leptons, non-standard interactions, CPT symmetry violation, Lorentz invariance violation, neutrino trident production, dark matter from both beam induced and cosmogenic sources, baryon number violation, and other new physics topics that complement those at high-energy colliders and significantly extend the present reach.

Supernova Neutrino Burst Detection with the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

DUNE collaboration , Abi B., Acciarri R., Acero M. A., Adamov G., Adams D., Adinolfi M., Ahmad Z., Ahmed J., Alion T.
15 Aug 2020 hep-ex astro-ph.IM astro-ph.SR nucl-ex physics.ins-det arxiv.org/abs/2008.06647

The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), a 40-kton underground liquid argon time projection chamber experiment, will be sensitive to the electron-neutrino flavor component of the burst of neutrinos expected from the next Galactic core-collapse supernova. Such an observation will bring unique insight into the astrophysics of core collapse as well as into the properties of neutrinos. The general capabilities of DUNE for neutrino detection in the relevant few- to few-tens-of-MeV neutrino energy range will be described. As an example, DUNE's ability to constrain the $\nu_e$ spectral parameters of the neutrino burst will be considered.

First results on ProtoDUNE-SP liquid argon time projection chamber performance from a beam test at the CERN Neutrino Platform

DUNE Collaboration , Abi B., Abud A. Abed, Acciarri R., Acero M. A., Adamov G., Adamowski M., Adams D., Adrien P., Adinolfi M.
13 Jul 2020 physics.ins-det hep-ex arxiv.org/abs/2007.06722

The ProtoDUNE-SP detector is a single-phase liquid argon time projection chamber with an active volume of $7.2\times 6.0\times 6.9$ m$^3$. It is installed at the CERN Neutrino Platform in a specially-constructed beam that delivers charged pions, kaons, protons, muons and electrons with momenta in the range 0.3 GeV$/c$ to 7 GeV/$c$. Beam line instrumentation provides accurate momentum measurements and particle identification. The ProtoDUNE-SP detector is a prototype for the first far detector module of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, and it incorporates full-size components as designed for that module. This paper describes the beam line, the time projection chamber, the photon detectors, the cosmic-ray tagger, the signal processing and particle reconstruction. It presents the first results on ProtoDUNE-SP's performance, including noise and gain measurements, $dE/dx$ calibration for muons, protons, pions and electrons, drift electron lifetime measurements, and photon detector noise, signal sensitivity and time resolution measurements. The measured values meet or exceed the specifications for the DUNE far detector, in several cases by large margins. ProtoDUNE-SP's successful operation starting in 2018 and its production of large samples of high-quality data demonstrate the effectiveness of the single-phase far detector design.

Neutrino interaction classification with a convolutional neural network in the DUNE far detector

DUNE Collaboration , Abi B., Acciarri R., Acero M. A., Adamov G., Adams D., Adinolfi M., Ahmad Z., Ahmed J., Alion T.
26 Jun 2020 physics.ins-det hep-ex arxiv.org/abs/2006.15052

The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment is a next-generation neutrino oscillation experiment that aims to measure $CP$-violation in the neutrino sector as part of a wider physics program. A deep learning approach based on a convolutional neural network has been developed to provide highly efficient and pure selections of electron neutrino and muon neutrino charged-current interactions. The electron neutrino (antineutrino) selection efficiency peaks at 90% (94%) and exceeds 85% (90%) for reconstructed neutrino energies between 2-5 GeV. The muon neutrino (antineutrino) event selection is found to have a maximum efficiency of 96% (97%) and exceeds 90% (95%) efficiency for reconstructed neutrino energies above 2 GeV. When considering all electron neutrino and antineutrino interactions as signal, a selection purity of 90% is achieved. These event selections are critical to maximize the sensitivity of the experiment to $CP$-violating effects.

Long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics potential of the DUNE experiment

DUNE Collaboration , Abi B., Acciarri R., Acero M. A., Adamov G., Adams D., Adinolfi M., Ahmad Z., Ahmed J., Alion T.
26 Jun 2020 hep-ex hep-ph arxiv.org/abs/2006.16043

The sensitivity of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to neutrino oscillation is determined, based on a full simulation, reconstruction, and event selection of the far detector and a full simulation and parameterized analysis of the near detector. Detailed uncertainties due to the flux prediction, neutrino interaction model, and detector effects are included. DUNE will resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy to a precision of 5$\sigma$, for all $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$ values, after 2 years of running with the nominal detector design and beam configuration. It has the potential to observe charge-parity violation in the neutrino sector to a precision of 3$\sigma$ (5$\sigma$) after an exposure of 5 (10) years, for 50\% of all $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$ values. It will also make precise measurements of other parameters governing long-baseline neutrino oscillation, and after an exposure of 15 years will achieve a similar sensitivity to $\sin^{2} 2\theta_{13}$ to current reactor experiments.

An outflow powers the optical rise of the nearby, fast-evolving tidal disruption event AT2019qiz

Nicholl M., Wevers T., Oates S. R., Alexander K. D., Leloudas G., Onori F., Jerkstrand A., Gomez S., Campana S., Arcavi I.
03 Jun 2020 astro-ph.HE astro-ph.GA astro-ph.SR arxiv.org/abs/2006.02454

At 66 Mpc, AT2019qiz is the closest optical tidal disruption event (TDE) to date, with a luminosity intermediate between the bulk of the population and iPTF16fnl. Its proximity allowed a very early detection and triggering of multiwavelength and spectroscopic follow-up well before maximum light. The velocity dispersion of the host galaxy and fits to the TDE light curve indicate a black hole mass $\approx 10^6$ M$\odot$, disrupting a star of $\approx 1$ M$\odot$. Comprehensive UV, optical and X-ray data shows that the early optical emission is dominated by an outflow, with a luminosity evolution $L \propto t^2$, consistent with a photosphere expanding at constant velocity ($\gtrsim 2000$ km s$^{-1}$), and a line-forming region producing initially blueshifted H and He II profiles with $v=3000-10000$ km s$^{-1}$. The fastest optical ejecta approach the velocity inferred from radio detections (modelled in a forthcoming companion paper from K.~D.~Alexander et al.), thus the same outflow may be responsible for both the fast optical rise and the radio emission -- the first time this connection has been observed in a TDE. The light curve rise begins $29 \pm 2$ days before maximum light, peaking when the photosphere reaches the radius where optical photons can escape. The photosphere then undergoes a sudden transition, first cooling at constant radius then contracting at constant temperature. At the same time, the blueshifts disappear from the spectrum and Bowen fluorescence lines (N III) become prominent, implying a source of far-UV photons, while the X-ray light curve peaks at $\approx 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Assuming that these X-rays are from prompt accretion, the size and mass of the outflow are consistent with the reprocessing layer needed to explain the large optical to X-ray ratio in this and other optical TDEs, possibly favouring accretion-powered over collision-powered outflow models.

The Tidal Disruption Event AT 2018hyz I: Double-peaked emission lines and a flat Balmer decrement

Short P., Nicholl M., Lawrence A., Gomez S., Arcavi I., Wevers T., Leloudas G., Schulze S., Anderson J. P., Berger E.
11 Mar 2020 astro-ph.GA astro-ph.HE arxiv.org/abs/2003.05470

We present results from spectroscopic observations of AT 2018hyz, a transient discovered by the ASAS-SN survey at an absolute magnitude of $M_V\sim -20.2$ mag, in the nucleus of a quiescent galaxy with strong Balmer absorption lines. AT 2018hyz shows a blue spectral continuum and broad emission lines, consistent with previous TDE candidates. High cadence follow-up spectra show broad Balmer lines and He I in early spectra, with He II making an appearance after $\sim70-100$ days. The Balmer lines evolve from a smooth broad profile, through a boxy, asymmetric double-peaked phase consistent with accretion disc emission, and back to smooth at late times. The Balmer lines are unlike typical AGN in that they show a flat Balmer decrement (H$\alpha$/H$\beta\sim1.5$), suggesting the lines are collisionally excited rather than being produced via photo-ionisation. The flat Balmer decrement together with the complex profiles suggest that the emission lines originate in a disc chromosphere, analogous to those seen in cataclysmic variables. The low optical depth of material due to a possible partial disruption may be what allows us to observe these double-peaked, collisionally excited lines. The late appearance of He II may be due to an expanding photosphere or outflow, or late-time shocks in debris collisions.

Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), Far Detector Technical Design Report, Volume I: Introduction to DUNE

Abi B., Acciarri R., Acero Mario A., Adamov G., Adams D., Adinolfi M., Ahmad Z., Ahmed J., Alion T., Monsalve S. Alonso
07 Feb 2020 physics.ins-det hep-ex arxiv.org/abs/2002.02967

The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, the dynamics of the supernovae that produced the heavy elements necessary for life, and whether protons eventually decay -- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our universe, its current state, and its eventual fate. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is an international world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions as it searches for leptonic charge-parity symmetry violation, stands ready to capture supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector technical design report (TDR) describes the DUNE physics program and the technical designs of the single- and dual-phase DUNE liquid argon TPC far detector modules. This TDR is intended to justify the technical choices for the far detector that flow down from the high-level physics goals through requirements at all levels of the Project. Volume I contains an executive summary that introduces the DUNE science program, the far detector and the strategy for its modular designs, and the organization and management of the Project. The remainder of Volume I provides more detail on the science program that drives the choice of detector technologies and on the technologies themselves. It also introduces the designs for the DUNE near detector and the DUNE computing model, for which DUNE is planning design reports. Volume II of this TDR describes DUNE's physics program in detail. Volume III describes the technical coordination required for the far detector design, construction, installation, and integration, and its organizational structure. Volume IV describes the single-phase far detector technology. A planned Volume V will describe the dual-phase technology.

Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), Far Detector Technical Design Report, Volume II: DUNE Physics

Abi B., Acciarri R., Acero Mario A., Adamov G., Adams D., Adinolfi M., Ahmad Z., Ahmed J., Alion T., Monsalve S. Alonso
07 Feb 2020 hep-ex physics.ins-det arxiv.org/abs/2002.03005

The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, the dynamics of the supernovae that produced the heavy elements necessary for life, and whether protons eventually decay -- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our universe, its current state, and its eventual fate. DUNE is an international world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions as it searches for leptonic charge-parity symmetry violation, stands ready to capture supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector technical design report (TDR) describes the DUNE physics program and the technical designs of the single- and dual-phase DUNE liquid argon TPC far detector modules. Volume II of this TDR, DUNE Physics, describes the array of identified scientific opportunities and key goals. Crucially, we also report our best current understanding of the capability of DUNE to realize these goals, along with the detailed arguments and investigations on which this understanding is based. This TDR volume documents the scientific basis underlying the conception and design of the LBNF/DUNE experimental configurations. As a result, the description of DUNE's experimental capabilities constitutes the bulk of the document. Key linkages between requirements for successful execution of the physics program and primary specifications of the experimental configurations are drawn and summarized. This document also serves a wider purpose as a statement on the scientific potential of DUNE as a central component within a global program of frontier theoretical and experimental particle physics research. Thus, the presentation also aims to serve as a resource for the particle physics community at large.

Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), Far Detector Technical Design Report, Volume III: DUNE Far Detector Technical Coordination

Abi B., Acciarri R., Acero Mario A., Adamov G., Adams D., Adinolfi M., Ahmad Z., Ahmed J., Alion T., Monsalve S. Alonso
07 Feb 2020 physics.ins-det hep-ex arxiv.org/abs/2002.03008

The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, the dynamics of the supernovae that produced the heavy elements necessary for life, and whether protons eventually decay -- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our universe, its current state, and its eventual fate. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is an international world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions as it searches for leptonic charge-parity symmetry violation, stands ready to capture supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector technical design report (TDR) describes the DUNE physics program and the technical designs of the single- and dual-phase DUNE liquid argon TPC far detector modules. Volume III of this TDR describes how the activities required to design, construct, fabricate, install, and commission the DUNE far detector modules are organized and managed. This volume details the organizational structures that will carry out and/or oversee the planned far detector activities safely, successfully, on time, and on budget. It presents overviews of the facilities, supporting infrastructure, and detectors for context, and it outlines the project-related functions and methodologies used by the DUNE technical coordination organization, focusing on the areas of integration engineering, technical reviews, quality assurance and control, and safety oversight. Because of its more advanced stage of development, functional examples presented in this volume focus primarily on the single-phase (SP) detector module.