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All articles by
Yurkin Y. T. | Yurkin Yu. T. | Yurkin Maxim A. | Yurkin Alexander V. | Yurkin Alexander | Yurkin M. A. | Yurkin Yuriy T.

Maxim Laurentiu | Maxim Laurentiu G. | Maxim C. | Maxim Catalin

A | A Gustavo Bruzual | A Dang Quang | A Krishna Chaitanya | A Lazarian | A Germina K | A M. | A Pranav | A Antony Franklin | A Azeef Muhammed P

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First-principles modeling of electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media

Mishchenko Michael I., Dlugach Janna M., Yurkin Maxim A., Bi Lei, Cairns Brian, Liu Li, Panetta R. Lee, Travis Larry D., Yang Ping, Zakharova Nadezhda T.
20 May 2016 physics.optics arxiv.org/abs/1605.06452

The main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell-Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations, we trace the development of the first-principles formalism enabling accurate calculations of monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic scattering by static and randomly varying multiparticle groups. We illustrate how this general framework can be coupled with state-of-the-art computer solvers of the Maxwell equations and applied to direct modeling of electromagnetic scattering by representative random multi-particle groups with arbitrary packing densities. This first-principles modeling yields general physical insights unavailable with phenomenological approaches. We discuss how the first-order-scattering approximation, the radiative transfer theory, and the theory of weak localization of electromagnetic waves can be derived as immediate corollaries of the Maxwell equations for very specific and well-defined kinds of particulate medium. These recent developments confirm the mesoscopic origin of the radiative transfer, weak localization, and effective-medium regimes and help evaluate the numerical accuracy of widely used approximate modeling methodologies.

Kinetics of the initial stage of immunoagglutionation studied with the scanning flow cytometer

Surovtsev Ivan V., Yurkin Maxim A., Shvalov Alexander N., Nekrasov Vyacheslav M., Sivolobova Galina F., Grazhdantseva Antonina A., Maltsev Valeri P., Chernyshev Andrey V.
29 Jul 2008 physics.optics physics.bio-ph arxiv.org/abs/0807.4645

The use of a scanning flow cytometer (SFC) to study the evolution of monomers, dimers and higher multimers of latex particles at the initial stage of the immunoagglutination is described. The SFC can measure the light-scattering pattern (indicatrix) of an individual particle over an angular range of 10-60 deg. A comparison of the experimentally measured and theoretically calculated indicatrices allows one to discriminate different types of latex particles (i.e. monomers, dimers, etc.) and, therefore, to study the evolution of immunoagglutination process. Validity of the approach was verified by simultaneous measurements of light-scattering patterns and fluorescence from individual polymer particles. Immunoagglutination was initiated by mixing bovine serum albumin (BSA)-covered latex particles (of 1.8 um in diameter) with anti-BSA IgG. The analysis of experimental data was performed on the basis of a mathematical model of diffusion-limited immunoagglutination aggregation with a steric factor. The steric factor was determined by the size and the number of binding sites on the surface of a latex particle. The obtained data are in good agreement with the proposed mathematical modeling.

Determination of volume, shape and refractive index of individual blood platelets

Kolesnikova Irina V., Potapov Sergei V., Yurkin Maxim A., Hoekstra Alfons G., Maltsev Valeri P., Semyanov Konstantin A.
29 Jul 2008 physics.optics physics.bio-ph arxiv.org/abs/0807.4673

Light scattering patterns (LSP) of blood platelets were theoretically and experimentally analyzed. We used spicular spheroids as a model for the platelets with pseudopodia. The discrete dipole approximation was employed to simulate light scattering from an individual spicular spheroid constructed from a homogeneous oblate spheroid and 14 rectilinear parallelepipeds rising from the cell centre. These parallelepipeds have a weak effect on the LSP over the measured angular range. Therefore, a homogeneous oblate spheroid was taken as a simplified optical model for platelets. Using the T-matrix method, we computed the LSP over a range of volumes, aspect ratios and refractive indices. Measured LSPs of individual platelets were compared one by one with the theoretical set and the best fit was taken to characterize the measured platelets, resulting in distributions of volume, aspect ratio and refractive index.

Experimental and theoretical study of light scattering by individual mature red blood cells by use of scanning flow cytometry and discrete dipole approximation

Yurkin Maxim A., Semyanov Konstantin A., Tarasov Peter A., Chernyshev Andrei V., Hoekstra Alfons G., Maltsev Valeri P.
09 Apr 2007 physics.optics physics.med-ph arxiv.org/abs/0704.1134

Elastic light scattering by mature red blood cells (RBCs) was theoretically and experimentally analyzed with the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) and the scanning flow cytometry (SFC), respectively. SFC permits measurement of angular dependence of light-scattering intensity (indicatrix) of single particles. A mature RBC is modeled as a biconcave disk in DDA simulations of light scattering. We have studied the effect of RBC orientation related to the direction of the incident light upon the indicatrix. Numerical calculations of indicatrices for several aspect ratios and volumes of RBC have been carried out. Comparison of the simulated indicatrices and indicatrices measured by SFC showed good agreement, validating the biconcave disk model for a mature RBC. We simulated the light-scattering output signals from the SFC with the DDA for RBCs modeled as a disk-sphere and as an oblate spheroid. The biconcave disk, the disk-sphere, and the oblate spheroid models have been compared for two orientations, i.e. face-on and rim-on incidence. Only the oblate spheroid model for rim-on incidence gives results similar to the rigorous biconcave disk model.

Convergence of the discrete dipole approximation. I. Theoretical analysis

Yurkin Maxim A., Maltsev Valeri P., Hoekstra Alfons G.
31 Mar 2007 physics.optics physics.comp-ph arxiv.org/abs/0704.0033

We performed a rigorous theoretical convergence analysis of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). We prove that errors in any measured quantity are bounded by a sum of a linear and quadratic term in the size of a dipole d, when the latter is in the range of DDA applicability. Moreover, the linear term is significantly smaller for cubically than for non-cubically shaped scatterers. Therefore, for small d errors for cubically shaped particles are much smaller than for non-cubically shaped. The relative importance of the linear term decreases with increasing size, hence convergence of DDA for large enough scatterers is quadratic in the common range of d. Extensive numerical simulations were carried out for a wide range of d. Finally we discuss a number of new developments in DDA and their consequences for convergence.

Convergence of the discrete dipole approximation. II. An extrapolation technique to increase the accuracy

Yurkin Maxim A., Maltsev Valeri P., Hoekstra Alfons G.
31 Mar 2007 physics.optics physics.comp-ph arxiv.org/abs/0704.0035

We propose an extrapolation technique that allows accuracy improvement of the discrete dipole approximation computations. The performance of this technique was studied empirically based on extensive simulations for 5 test cases using many different discretizations. The quality of the extrapolation improves with refining discretization reaching extraordinary performance especially for cubically shaped particles. A two order of magnitude decrease of error was demonstrated. We also propose estimates of the extrapolation error, which were proven to be reliable. Finally we propose a simple method to directly separate shape and discretization errors and illustrated this for one test case.

The discrete dipole approximation for simulation of light scattering by particles much larger than the wavelength

Yurkin Maxim A., Maltsev Valeri P., Hoekstra Alfons G.
31 Mar 2007 physics.optics physics.comp-ph arxiv.org/abs/0704.0037

In this manuscript we investigate the capabilities of the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) to simulate scattering from particles that are much larger than the wavelength of the incident light, and describe an optimized publicly available DDA computer program that processes the large number of dipoles required for such simulations. Numerical simulations of light scattering by spheres with size parameters x up to 160 and 40 for refractive index m=1.05 and 2 respectively are presented and compared with exact results of the Mie theory. Errors of both integral and angle-resolved scattering quantities generally increase with m and show no systematic dependence on x. Computational times increase steeply with both x and m, reaching values of more than 2 weeks on a cluster of 64 processors. The main distinctive feature of the computer program is the ability to parallelize a single DDA simulation over a cluster of computers, which allows it to simulate light scattering by very large particles, like the ones that are considered in this manuscript. Current limitations and possible ways for improvement are discussed.

The discrete dipole approximation: an overview and recent developments

Yurkin Maxim A., Hoekstra Alfons G.
31 Mar 2007 physics.optics physics.comp-ph arxiv.org/abs/0704.0038

We present a review of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), which is a general method to simulate light scattering by arbitrarily shaped particles. We put the method in historical context and discuss recent developments, taking the viewpoint of a general framework based on the integral equations for the electric field. We review both the theory of the DDA and its numerical aspects, the latter being of critical importance for any practical application of the method. Finally, the position of the DDA among other methods of light scattering simulation is shown and possible future developments are discussed.

Microwave Emission by Dust: Mechanisms, Properties and Prospects for ISM Studies

A Lazarian
02 Nov 1998 astro-ph arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9811043

I review my work with Bruce Draine on dust emissivity at microwave frequencies (3 cm - 3 mm). This emissivity explains the recently detected "anomalous" component of the galactic foreground emission. Both small (a<0.001 micron) and large grains contribute to this emission. Small grains have electric dipole moments and emit while they rotate; the microwave emission of large grains is mostly due to magneto-dipole radiation. Most efficient magneto-dipole emitters are strongly magnetic, e.g. ferrimagnetic or ferromagnetic, materials. The relative role of the two mechanisms can be established through observations of microwave emissivity from dark clouds. New microwave window is a window of opportunity for interstellar studies. Magnetic fields inside dark clouds may be successfully studied via microwave polarization. Microwave emissivity constrains the abundance of strongly magnetic materials. For instance, the available data at 90 GHz indicate that not more than 5% of interstellar Fe is in the form of metallic iron grains or inclusions (e.g., in ``GEMS''). Future missions, e.g. MAP and PLANCK, will bring a wealth of microwave data that can be successfully used to study ISM. Such a study would be appreciated by cosmologists who franticly try to remove all foregrounds from their data.

AGILE: a Gamma-Ray Mission for a Light Imaging Detector

Tavani M., Barbiellini G., Caraveo P., Di Pippo S., Mereghetti S., A , Morselli , Pellizzoni A., Perrino A., Picozza P.
04 Dec 1998 astro-ph arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9812096

AGILE is an innovative, cost-effective gamma-ray mission proposed to the ASI Program of Small Scientific Missions. It is planned to detect gamma-rays in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV energy band and operate as an {\bf Observatory} open to the international community. Primary scientific goals include the study of AGNs, gamma-ray bursts, Galactic sources, unidentified gamma-ray sources, solar flares, and diffuse gamma-ray emission. AGILE is planned to be operational during the year 2001 for a 3-year mission. It will ideally `fill the gap' between EGRET and GLAST, and support ground-based multiwavelength studies of high-energy sources.