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Znojil Miloslav | Znojil M.

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Non-Hermitian N-state degeneracies: unitary realizations via antisymmetric anharmonicities

Znojil Miloslav
28 Oct 2020 quant-ph hep-th math-ph math.MP arxiv.org/abs/2010.15014

The phenomenon of degeneracy of an $N-$plet of bound states is studied in the framework of quantum theory of closed (i.e., unitary) systems. For an underlying Hamiltonian $H=H(\lambda)$ the degeneracy occurs at a Kato's exceptional point $\lambda^{(EPN)}$ of order $N$ and of the spectral geometric multiplicity $K<N$. In spite of the phenomenological appeal of the concept (tractable as a quantum phase transition, or as a unitary processes of the loss of the observability of the system), the dedicated literature deals, predominantly, just with the models where $N=2$ and $K=1$. In our paper it is shown that the construction of the $N>2$ and $K>1$ benchmark models of the process of degeneracy becomes feasible and non-numerical for a broad class of specific, maximally non-Hermitian anharmonic-oscillator toy-model Hamiltonians. An exhaustive classification of non-equivalent processes is given by a partitioning of the unperturbed spectrum into equidistant and centered unperturbed subspectra.

Unitary unfoldings of Bose-Hubbard exceptional point with and without particle number conservation

Znojil Miloslav
28 Aug 2020 math-ph hep-th math.MP quant-ph arxiv.org/abs/2008.12844

Non-Hermitian but ${\cal PT}-$symmetric quantum system of an $N-$plet of bosons described by the three-parametric Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian $H(\gamma,v,c)$ is picked up, in its special exceptional-point limit $c \to 0$ and $\gamma \to v$, as an unperturbed part of the family of generalized Bose-Hubbard-like Hamiltonians $\mathfrak{H}(\lambda)=H(v,v,0)+\lambda\,{\cal V}$ for which the unitarity of the perturbed system is required. This leads to the construction of two different families of Hamiltonians $\mathfrak{H}(\lambda)$. In the first one the number $N$ of bosons is assumed conserved while in the second family such an assumption is relaxed. In both cases the anisotropy of the related physical Hilbert space is shown reflected by a highly counterintuitive but operationally realizable structure of admissible perturbations $\lambda\,{\cal V}$.

Hilbert spaces of states of $\,{\cal PT}-$symmetric harmonic oscillator near exceptional points

Znojil Miloslav
10 Aug 2020 quant-ph math-ph math.FA math.MP arxiv.org/abs/2008.04012

Although the Stone theorem requires that in a physical Hilbert space ${\cal H}$ the time-evolution of a quantum system is unitary if and only if the corresponding Hamiltonian $H$ is self-adjoint in ${\cal H}$, an equivalent, recently popular picture of the same evolution may be constructed in another, manifestly unphysical Hilbert space ${\cal K}$ in which $H$ is non-Hermitian but ${\cal PT}-$symmetric. Unfortunately, one only rarely succeeds in circumventing the key technical obstacle which lies in the necessary ultimate reconstruction of all of the eligible physical Hilbert spaces of states ${\cal H}$ in which $H$ is self-adjoint. We show that, how, and why such a reconstruction becomes feasible for a spiked harmonic oscillator in a phenomenologically most interesting vicinity of its phase-transition exceptional points.

Perturbation theory near degenerate exceptional points

Znojil Miloslav
02 Aug 2020 math-ph math.MP quant-ph arxiv.org/abs/2008.00479

In an overall framework of quantum mechanics of unitary systems a rather sophisticated new version of perturbation theory is developed. What is assumed is, firstly, that the perturbed Hamiltonians $H=H_0+\lambda V$ are non-Hermitian and lie close to their unobservable exceptional-point (EP) degeneracy limit $H_0$. Secondly, in this EP limit, the geometric multiplicity $L$ of the degenerate unperturbed eigenvalue $E_0$ is assumed, in contrast to the majority of existing studies, larger than one. Under these assumptions the method of construction of the bound states is described. Its specific subtleties are illustrated via the leading-order recipe. The emergence of a counterintuitive connection between the value of $L$, the structure of the matrix elements of perturbations, and the possible loss of the stability and unitarity of the processes of the unfolding of the EP singularity is given a detailed explanation.

Anomalous mechanisms of the loss of observability in non-Hermitian quantum models

Znojil Miloslav, Borisov Denis I.
26 May 2020 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech hep-th math-ph math.MP arxiv.org/abs/2005.13069

Quantum phase transitions in certain non-Hermitian systems controlled by non-tridiagonal Hamiltonian matrices are found anomalous. In contrast to the known models with tridiagonal-matrix structure in which the geometric multiplicity of the completely degenerate energy eigenvalue appears always equal to one, this multiplicity is found larger than one in the present models. The phenomenon is interpreted as a confluence of several decoupled Kato's exceptional points of equal or different orders.

Relocalization switch in a triple quantum dot molecule in 2D

Znojil Miloslav
14 May 2020 cond-mat.mes-hall physics.chem-ph quant-ph arxiv.org/abs/2005.06934

Tunneling between pronounced minima of a polynomial potential (simulating coupled quantum dots) can cause an abrupt quantum-catastrophic relocalization of density $|\psi(x,y, \ldots)|$. Non-numerical illustration is constructed, in 2D, using a non-separable sextic-oscillator model.

Supersymmetry and exceptional points

Znojil Miloslav
09 May 2020 hep-th math-ph math.MP quant-ph arxiv.org/abs/2005.04508

A conceptual bridge is provided between SUSY and the three-Hilbert-space upgrade of quantum theory a.k.a. ${\cal PT}-$symmetric or quasi-Hermitian. In particular, a natural theoretical link is found between SUSY and the presence of Kato's exceptional points (EPs), both being related to the phenomenon of degeneracy of energy levels. Regularized spiked harmonic oscillator is recalled for illustration.

Polynomial potentials and coupled quantum dots in two and three dimensions

Znojil Miloslav
13 Mar 2020 quant-ph arxiv.org/abs/2003.06501

Non-separable $D-$dimensional partial differential Schr\"{o}dinger equations are considered at $D=2$ and $D=3$, with the even-parity local potentials $V(x,y,\ldots)$ which are polynomials of degree four (cusp catastrophe resembling case) and six (butterfly resembling case). Their extremes (i.e., minima and maxima) are assumed pronounced, localized via a suitable ad hoc parametrization of the coupling constants. A non-numerical approximate construction of the low lying bound states $\psi(x,y,\ldots)$] is then found feasible in the dynamical regime simulating a coupled system of quantum dots in which the individual minima of $V(x,y,\ldots)$ are well separated, with the potential being locally approximated by the harmonic oscillator wells. The measurable characteristics (and, in particular, the topologically protected probability-density distributions) are then found bifurcating in a specific evolution scenario called a relocalization quantum catastrophe.

Passage through exceptional point: Case study

Znojil Miloslav
12 Mar 2020 quant-ph math-ph math.MP arxiv.org/abs/2003.05876

It is conjectured that the exceptional-point (EP) singularity of a one-parametric quasi-Hermitian $N$ by $N$ matrix Hamiltonian $H(t)$ can play the role of a quantum phase-transition interface connecting different dynamical regimes of a unitary quantum system. Six realizations of the EP-mediated quantum phase transitions "of the third kind" are described in detail. Fairly realistic Bose-Hubbard (BH) and discrete anharmonic oscillator (AO) models of any matrix dimension $N$ are considered in the initial, intermediate, or final phase. In such a linear algebraic illustration of the changes of phase, all ingredients (and, first of all, all transition matrices) are constructed in closed, algebraic, non-numerical form.

Arnold's potentials and quantum catastrophes

Znojil Miloslav
12 Dec 2019 quant-ph math-ph math.MP arxiv.org/abs/1912.06223

In the well known Thom's classification, every classical catastrophe is assigned a Lyapunov function. In the one-dimensional case, due to V. I. Arnold, these functions have polynomial form $V_{(k)}(x)= x^{k+1} + c_1x^{k-1} + \ldots$. A natural question is which features of the theory survive when such a function (say, with an even value of asymptotically dominant exponent $k+1$) is used as a confining potential in Schr\"{o}dinger equation. A few answers are formulated. Firstly, it is clarified that due to the tunneling, one of the possible classes of the measurable quantum catastrophes may be sought in a phenomenon of relocalization of the dominant part of the quantum particle density between different minima. For the sake of definiteness we just consider the spatially even Arnold's potentials and in the limit of the thick barriers and deep valleys we arrive at a systematic classification of the corresponding relocalization catastrophes.